Joaquín Archivaldo Guzmán Loera (/ ??u?zm??n/;  Spanish: [xoa?kin a?t?i??aldo ?uz?man lo?e?a]; birthed 4 April 1957)  is a Mexican medicine lord as well as former leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, an international crime organization. Known as "El Chapo" ("Shorty", pronounced [el ?t?apo] as a result of his 168 centimeters (5 feet 6 in) stature, Guzmán is considered to have been one of the most effective drug trafficker in the world.  
Born in Sinaloa, Guzmán was increased in an inadequate farming family, and sustained physical abuse through his father. Through his dad, Guzmán entered the medicine trade, aiding him expand marijuana for local suppliers during his early adulthood. By the late 1970s, Guzmán started collaborating with Héctor Luis Palma Salazar, one of the nation's rising medicine lords, whom he aided map paths to relocate medicines via Sinaloa, and also into the United States. Guzmán later on monitored logistics for Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo, among the country's leading authorities, in the mid 1980s, however founded his very own cartel in 1988 after Gallardo's arrest.
As the leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, Guzmán oversaw operations wherein mass cocaine, methamphetamines, marijuana,  and also heroin was created and ultimately smuggled into and dispersed throughout the United States and Europe, the globe's biggest users.   He accomplished this by introducing making use of circulation cells in the UNITED STATE as well as long-range passages near boundaries,  which enabled him to export even more drugs to the USA than any various other trafficker in background.  His leadership of the cartel likewise brought tremendous riches and power; Guzmán was ranked by Forbes as one of one of the most effective people worldwide in between 2009 and also 2013,  while the Medicine Enforcement Administration (DEA) approximated that he matched the influence and also wealth of Pablo Escobar. 
Guzmán was initial caught in 1993 in Guatemala and also was extradited as well as sentenced to two decades behind bars in Mexico for murder and also medicine trafficking. He paid off warder as well as ran away from a federal maximum-security jail in 2001. His standing as a fugitive led to an $8.8 million incorporated reward from Mexico and the UNITED STATE for info bring about his capture, as well as he was later jailed in Mexico in 2014. He got away before official sentencing in 2015, with a 1.5 km (0.93 mi) passage under his prison cell. He was recaptured by Mexican authorities following a shoot-out in 2016, and also was extradited to the USA a year later, where he was condemned of a number of criminal costs connected to his leadership of the Sinaloa Cartel.  He is expected to be punished to life behind bars without the opportunity of parole in a sentencing hearing arranged for 25 June 2019.